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of Europe and Asia. In 1750 charcoal iron production was 24,500 and coke iron was 2,500 tons. Clark argues that in 16th-century England, women were engaged in many aspects of industry and agriculture. Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel child labour, dirty living conditions, and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution. These were all horse drawn or relied on gravity, with a stationary steam engine to haul the wagons back to the top of the incline. Unions slowly overcame the legal restrictions on the right to strike. 12 The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes. 19 James Fox of Derby had a healthy export trade in machine tools for the first third of the century, as did Matthew Murray of Leeds.

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A Financial History of Western Europe. 148 master thesis utwente cw Wallonia exemplified the radical evolution of industrial expansion. Cartwright's loom design had several flaws, the most serious being thread breakage. In 1764 in the village of Stanhill, Lancashire, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, which he patented in 1770. 135 Those who ran away would be whipped and returned to their masters, with some masters shackling them to prevent escape. The Genius of China: 3000 years of science, discovery and invention. 10 Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants. 118 119 Taking a pessimistic side, Alice Clark argued that when capitalism arrived in 17th century England, it lowered the status of women as they lost much of their economic importance. Merchant capitalist typically provided the raw materials, paid workers by the piece, and were responsible for the sale of the goods.