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case in point put forward by moral philosopher Judith Thomson: "A brilliant transplant surgeon has five patients, each in need of a different organ, each of whom will die without that organ. This is approximately the case in many species where social learning is absent or of marginal importance. When reminded that one vote will not affect even such close elections, the common repost is that "Well, if everyone thought like that, we couldn't run a democracy." Agreed. Therefore humans were selected to make sacrifices on behalf of their coalitions, and models of group selection that distinguish within- and between-group fitnesses can transparently explain the evolution of human altruism, including generosity, empathy, sharing, bravery, and civic-mindedness. Unfortunately, there are no organs available to perform any of these five transplant operations. Wilson explains, "In a group, selfish individuals beat altruistic individuals.

The following week they included a British Tory novelist, Stanley Johnson, whose real claim to fame seemed to be that he was Boris Johnstons father. Until the Military Revolution of the 16th century, European states tended to fill their armies with marauding thugs, pardoned criminals, and paid mercenaries, while Islamic states often had military slave castes.

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This is clearest in foreign policy debates, where successive governments have accepted an American view of the world even while insisting that Australia must work within its own region. One is eusociality in insect taxa such as bees, ants, and termites, whose worker or soldier castes forgo their own reproduction and may sacrifice their lives to benefit their fellows, as when a bee dies when stinging an invader. 16 ( Mathew Boyd, 2011 ). (There is some irony in the fact that Pinker shares this view with Richard Lewontin, one of evolutionary psychology's most vociferous critics.) This is really not satisfactory. Would you like to share the 10 you just got?" In the first scenario, you own the money and you see no reason why you would share it; in the second scenario, you have just received a lump of money for no apparent reason and. Other replicators are computer viruses (which temporarily reside in computer hardware) and memes (which temporarily reside in brains). The puzzle of monogamous marriage. Culture and the evolutionary process. Example 2: For decades anthropologists have been trying to explain cooperation among foragers.

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